Skip to Main Content

Turabian 9th Edition: AUDIOVISUAL



Bibliography Footnote

Mississippi Masala. DVD. Directed by Mira Nair. Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2003.

Heitler, Susan. The Angry Couple: Conflict-Focused Treatment. DVD. Hicksville, NY: Newbridge Communications, 1995.

Mississippi Masala, DVD, directed by Mira Nair (Culver City, CA: Columbia Tristar Home Entertainment, 2003).

Susan Heitler, The Angry Couple: Conflict Focused Treatment, DVD (Hicksville, NY: Newbridge Communications, 1995).

Subsequent notes: Heitler, Angry Couple, 45.26.

Episode from a TV series

Bibliography Footnote
Cite TV, radio and other programs only in notes. Include at least title and date you saw it. Can also include episode title and number, names of key performers, broadcast venue and date of original broadcast if different from when you saw it. Italicise titles of programs but put titles of episodes in quotation marks.

Seinfeld, season 5, episode 22, “The Opposite,” aired May 19, 1994 on NBC.

Or you can quote this in your document and not bother with a note e.g. The Seinfeld episode titled “The Opposite” (aired May 19, 1994) perfectly illustrates this story structure.

Audio recording

Bibliography Footnote

Barrs, Jerram. The God of Grace and Glory. CD. L'Abri Audio Library. Chesterton, IN: Sound Word Associates, 2003.

Wright, N. T. Kingdom, Spirit & the People of God: Eschatology and the Church's Task and Role in Pauline Theology. 6 CDs. Vancouver, BC: Regent College, 1999.

Include as much information as possible about the recording, including the names of the performers, the name of the production company, any identifying numbers (catalog number, etc.), and the media format.

Jerram Barrs, The God of Grace and Glory, CD, L'Abri Audio Library (Chesterton, IN: Sound Word Associates, 2003).

Subsequent notes: Barrs, God of Grace, 2.15.

N. T. Wright, The Redemption of Creation, RGCD2900B1, disc 3 of Kingdom, Spirit & the People of God: Eschatology and the Church's Task and Role in Pauline Theology, 6 CDs (Vancouver, BC: Regent College, 1999).

Subsequent notes: Wright, Redemption of Creation, 2.43.

Rhianna, “Umbrella,” featuring Jay-Z, track 1 on Good Girl Gone Bad, Island Def. Jam, 2007, Spotify streaming audio, 320 kbps.

Subsequent notes: Rhianna, "Umbrella", 2.05.


Bibliography Footnote
Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. CD, version 4.0. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., CD, version 4.0 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009).