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Turabian 9th Edition: PRINT

Print

One author

Bibliography Footnote

Surname, First name Initial. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

 

First name Initial. Last name, Title (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), Pages.

Talbert, Charles H. Matthew. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2010.

First Note: Charles H. Talbert, Matthew (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2010), 55.

Subsequent Notes: Talbert, 85-90.

Two or three authors

Bibliography Footnote

Surname, First name Initial. and First name Surname. Title. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

First name Initial. Last name and First name Last name, Title (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), Pages.

 

McLaren, Brian, and Anthony Campolo. Adventures in Missing the Point. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2006.

Appleby, Joyce, Lynn Hunt, and Margaret Jacob. Telling the Truth about History. New York: Norton, 1994.

First Note: Brian McLaren and Tony Campolo, Adventures in Missing the Point (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2006), 52.

Subsequent Notes (for the second reference): Appleby, Hunt, and Jacob, 301-4.

Four or more authors

Bibliography Footnote
List all authors or editors  

 

Evans, J., Peter Grimshaw, D. Philips, and S. Swain. Equal Subjects, Unequal Rights: Indigenous Peoples in British Settler Societies. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003.

Clements, Dave, Alastair Donald, Martin Earnshaw, and Austin Williams, eds. The Future of Community: Reports of a Death Greatly Exaggerated. London: Pluto Press, 2008.

First Note:  J. Evans et al, Equal Subjects, Unequal Rights: Indigenous Peoples in British Settler Societies (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2003), 91-93.

Dave Clements et al, eds., The Future of Community: Reports of a Death Greatly Exaggerated (London, UK: Pluto Press, 2008), 54.

Subsequent Notes: Evans et al, 121-23.

Clements et al, 34-35. (Do not add ‘eds’)

No author or editor

Bibliography Footnote

Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, Year.

Title, Edition. (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages.

Handbook of Signs and Symptoms. 3rd ed. Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009.

As there is no author, the title is placed in the position of the author. Do not use “anonymous” unless the book uses that.

First Note: Handbook of Signs and Symptoms, 3rd ed. (Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009), 67-68.

Subsequent Notes: Handbook of Signs and Symptoms, 76.

Bible

Bibliography Footnote
Does not need to be cited in the references; be sure to include the version you used in the first footnote.

First Note: Acts 10:17 (King James Version)

Subsequent Notes: James 3:12 (KJV)

Book or commentary in a series

Bibliography Footnote
Book title is The Gospel of St Matthew … Series title is New Testament Reading Guide (no italics) Book number in the series is 4.  

Stanley, David M. The Gospel of St. Matthew: Introduction and Commentary. New Testament Reading Guide 4. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press, 1963.

 

First Note: Stanley, David M. The Gospel of St. Matthew: Introduction and Commentary. New Testament Reading Guide 4 (Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press. 1963), 17.

Subsequent Notes: Stanley, 19.

Commentary

Bibliography Footnote
Grogan is the author of the chapter “Isaiah” is the title of the chapter The rest of the record refers to the title and editor of the commentary  

Grogan, G. W. “Isaiah.” In Isaiah – Ezekiel. Vol. 6 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: With the New International Version of the Holy Bible, edited by Frank E. Gaebelein. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986.

 

First Note: Grogan, G. W. “Isaiah.” In Isaiah - Ezekiel, vol. 6 of The Expositor’s Bible Commentary: With the New International Version of the Holy Bible, edited by Frank E. Gaebelein, (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1986), 78.

Subsequent notes: Grogan, 256-57.

Commentary with multiple elements

Bibliography Footnote
Lechler, G. V., and K. Gerok. Theological and Homiletical Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles: Specially Designed and Adapted for the Use of Ministers and Students. Edited by J. P. Lange. Translated by Paton J. Gloag. 2nd ed. 2 vols. Clark’s Foreign Theological Library. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1869. G. V. Lechler and K. Gerok, Theological and Homiletcial Commentary on the Acts of the Apostles: Specially Designed and Adapted for the Use of Ministers and Students, ed. J. P. Lange, trans. Paton J. Gloag, 2nd ed., 2 vols., Clark’s Foreign Theological Library (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1869), 1:52.

Book with an author plus editor or translator

Bibliography Footnote
The author's name appears first. In addition, the name(s) of the editor(s), compiler(s) or translator(s) appear after the title. In notes, use the abbreviation "ed." (not "eds.") and "comp." (not "comps.") even if there is more than one editor or compiler

Demarest, Bruce. The Cross and Salvation: The Doctrine of God. Edited by John Feinberg. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 2006.

 

First Note: Bruce Demarest, The Cross and Salvation: The Doctrine of God, ed. John Feinberg (Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 2006), 47.

Subsequent Notes: Demarest, 72.

 

Reprint

Bibliography Footnote
Surname, First name. Title. Original date published, Reprint. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. First name Surname. Title. (Original date published: repr., Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages.

If there is more than one date, choose the date for the copy you have read. If this was more than a year or two after the original publication, you may cite it as a reprint.

Dickens, Charles. Pictures from Italy. 1846, Reprint. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011

Charles Dickens, Pictures from Italy (1846: repr., Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 2011), 67.

Secondary Source

Bibliography Footnote

Zukofsky’s journal article is mentioned in Costello’s book. This is how it would be cited:

Zukofsky, Louis. “Sincerity and Objectification.” Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269. Quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981.

Louis Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78

Specific volume in a multivolume work (editor not listed)

Use this if the volume has a title different from the work as a whole

Bibliography Footnote
Surname, First name. Title of volume. Vol. no. of Title of work. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. First name Surname, Title of volume, vol. no. of Title of work (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages. 

Pelikan, Jaroslav. Reformation of Church and Dogma, 1300-1700. Vol. 4 of The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

First Note: Jaroslav Pelikan, Reformation of Church and Dogma, 1300-1700, vol. 4 of The Christian Tradition: A History of the Development of Doctrine (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), 201-9.

Subsequent Notes: Pelikan, 223.

Volumes not individually titled-citing one volume

Use this if the work has an author and the same title for all volumes

Bibliography Footnote
Surname, First name. Title. Vol. no. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. First name Surname, Title (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages.

 

Barnes, Albert. Notes on the Old Testament: Explanatory and Practical. Vol. 5. Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1950.

First Note: Albert Barnes, Notes on the Old Testament: Explanatory and Practical (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1950), 5:31.

Subsequent Notes: Barnes, 5:30.

Letters in published collections

Bibliography Footnote
James, Henry. Letters. Edited by Leon Edel. Vol. 4, 1895-1916. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1984. Henry James to Edith Wharton, November 8, 1905, in Letters, ed. Leon Edel, vol. 4, 1895-1916 (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1984), 373

Preface, introduction, foreword, epilogue, afterword

Bibliography Footnote
Collins, Gary R. Foreword to Lay Counseling: Equipping Christians for a Helping Ministry, by Siang-Yang Tan. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1991.

First Note Gary R. Collins, foreword to Lay Counseling: Equipping Christians for a Helping Ministry, by Siang-Yang Tan (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1991), 8.

Subsequent Notes: Collins, 9.

 

Corporate author

Bibliography Footnotes
Corporate author name. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Corporate author name. Title. (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), pages.

Victorian Department of Education. Schools of the Future. Melbourne: Victorian Department of Education, 1994.

In this case the author and the publisher are the same.

First Note: Victorian Department of Education, Schools of the Future (Melbourne: Victorian Department of Education, 1994), 54.

Subsequent Notes: Victorian Department of Education, 59


An edition other than the first

Bibliography Footnote
Surname, First name. Title. ?? ed. Place of publication: Publisher, Year. First name Surname, Title, ?? ed. (Place of publication: Publisher, Year), pages.
Harmer, J. The Practice of English Language Teaching. 3rd ed. Essex, UK: Longman, 2001.

J. Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, 3rd ed. (Essex, UK: Longman, 2001), 6-11.

If it is a revised edition, add ‘3rd Rev.’

Note: An ordinal number is a number defining the position of something in a series, e.g. 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th. Remove the superscript if needed.

Book chapter

Bibliography Footnote
Include either the chapter (e.g.’ chap. 2’ in notes and ‘ Chap. 2’ in the bibliography) or the chapter's page range, as above. You may need to use ‘chap 2’ for electronic books with no page numbers.  

Didion, Joan. “Marrying Absurd.” In Twenty-five Great Essays, edited by R. DiYanni, 227-44. New York: Pearson, 2008.

 

First Note: Joan Didion, “Marrying Absurd,” in Twenty-five Great Essays, ed. R. DiYanni, (New York: Pearson, 2008), 229.

Subsequent Notes: Didion, 240.

Edited book

Bibliography Footnote
If there is no author on the title page of a work, list instead the name(s) of the editor (ed. or eds.), compiler (comp. or comps.), or translator (trans.). The abbreviated forms appear in notes as well as in the bibliography.  

Gibbs, J. T., and L. N. Huang, eds. Children of Colour: Psychological Interventions with Minority Youth. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991.

 

First Note: J. T. Gibbs and L. N. Huang, eds., Children of Colour: Psychological Interventions with Minority Youth. (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1991), 325-26.

Subsequent Notes: Gibbs and Huang, 350. (Do not add ‘eds’)

 

Print journal

Bibliography Footnote
Surname, First name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal volume, no. issue (Year): Pages. First name, "Title of Article," Title of Journal volume, no. issue (Year): Page.

Jones, David Clyde. “The Westminster Confession on Divorce and Remarriage.” Presbyterion 16, no. 1 (Spring 1990): 17-40.

LeBlanc, Douglas, Jim Sheppard, and Gary D. Moore. “Should the Jobless Tithe on Their Unemployment Benefits? Stewardship Dilemma.” Christianity Today 55 no. 3 (2011): 40-41

Diefenthaler, Jon, Albert Collver, Philip Krey, and Jane Fryar. “’A God Who Hides’: Four Views on God and Disaster.” Concordia Journal 37, no. 1 (2011): 11- 20.

List ALL authors

Provide the full journal title in italics - do not abbreviate. If the official title uses initials eg PMLA do not expand it

First Note David Clyde Jones, “The Westminster Confession on Divorce and Remarriage,” Presbyterion 16, no. 1 (Spring 1990): 18.

Subsequent Notes Jones, 39

First Note Douglas LeBlanc, Jim Sheppard, and Gary D. Moore, “Should the Jobless Tithe on Their Unemployment Benefits? Stewardship Dilemma,” Christianity Today 55, no. 3 (2011): 40.

Subsequent Notes LeBlanc, Sheppard, and Moore, 41

First Note Jon Diefenthaler et al., “’A God Who Hides’: Four Views on God and Disaster,” Concordia Journal 37, no. 1 (2011): 19.

Subsequent citations: Diefenthaler et al., 20.

No author named

Bibliography Footnote
"Article Title." Journal Title volume, no. issue (Year): Pages. "Article Title," Page.
“Spotlight: How We Give.” Christianity Today 55, no. 1 (2011): 7. All Notes “Spotlight: How We Give,” 7.

Popular magazine article

Bibliography Footnote
Page numbers not required in bibliography, but may be added. Weekly or monthly magazines are cited by date (month/year) only, even if there is a volume/issue number on the cover.  

Behr, R. “Minority Report.” New Statesman, January 16, 2012.

 

R. Behr, “Minority Report,” New Statesman, January 16, 2012, 31.

Newspaper or magazine article

Bibliography Footnote
If a newspaper article is described in detail in your paper and included in a note, it is not necessary to list the article in the bibliography. Include an edition statement (e.g. national edition, weekend edition) if you can, after the date e.g. “2010, national edition.” Shweta Desai, “Wrong Place, Wrong Colour,” Indian Express, January 21, 2012.

 

Encyclopedia or dictionary with an author

Bibliography Footnote
Well-known encyclopedias and dictionaries are usually cited only in notes, with the edition specified but not all the publication facts. The abbreviation "s.v." (sub verbo, Latin for "under the word") is used to identify the article's title if there is no author for the article. First Note: Encyclopedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “Sir Francis Drake.”

Lesser-known encyclopedia or dictionary without an author

Bibliography Footnote
Title of Encyclopedia. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Title of Encyclopedia, s.v. "Article title."

Lesser-known encyclopedias should include publication details in the reference entry.

Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2001.

First Note: Encyclopedia of American Cultural & Intellectual History, s.v. ”Education in Early America.”

 

Pamphlets, Brochures, Reports etc.

Bibliography Footnotes
Cite these as you would a book. If you cannot find author, publisher etc. Just give enough other information to identify the document. Do not include in your Reference List. Last name, First name of the Author or Name of the Organization who wrote the pamphlet. Title of Brochure. City of Publication: Publisher, Year published. URL.

Work of art

Bibliography Footnote
Do not include in your Reference List. Pablo Picasso, Weeping Woman, 1937, oil on canvas, 60 x 90cm, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

Work of art where a copy of the image is in your text

Bibliography Footnote
Images should be referred to as figures and numbered successively. Do not include in your Reference List.

1. Jackson Pollock, Naked Man with Knife, ca. 1938-41, oil on canvas, 127 x 91.4 cm, Tate Gallery, London. (fig. 1).

2. Pollock, (fig. 1).

 

Unpublished conference proceedings

Bibliography Footnote
Surname, First name. "Presentation Title." Paper presented at Conference Information, Place, Month Day/s of Conference, Year. First name Surname, "Presentation Title" (paper presented at Conference Information, Place, Month Day/s of Conference, Year).

Doyle, Brian. “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59.” Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19-22, 2002.

Include a URL if you accessed this online.

First Note Brian Doyle, “Howling Like Dogs: Metaphorical Language in Psalm 59” (paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, Berlin, Germany, June 19-22, 2002).

Subsequent Notes Doyle, 2002

Lecture notes

Bibliography Footnotes
Surname, First name. "Title of Lecture," Unit name, where Lecture was held, Month Day, Year. First name Surname, "Title of Lecture." (Lecture, unit name where Lecture was held, Month Day, Year).

Cole, Ross. “The Relevance of the Psalms.” Lecture, Exegesis of the Psalms from Avondale University College, Cooranbong, NSW, March 13, 2012.

“The Relevance of the Psalms” is the name of the lecture. “Exegesis of the Psalms” is the unit name.

Ross Cole, “The Relevance of the Psalms.” (Lecture, Exegesis of the Psalms from Avondale University College, Cooranbong, NSW, March 13, 2012).

No need for a bibliographical entry if the details are given in the body of your essay as well as in the note.

Interviews 

Bibliography Footnotes

No Reference necessary

 

Ted White, interview by Ima Student, June 6, 2011.

Benjamin Spock, interview by Milton J. E. Senn, November 20, 1974, interview 67A, transcript, Senn Oral History Collection, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD.

Subsequent Notes White, interview

Unpublished interviews (including those you have conducted yourself) should usually be cited only in notes. Include a specific interview in your bibliography only if it is critical to your argument or frequently cited. Cite a published interview according to the rules for that type of publication (e.g. print or electronic, etc.) with the interviewee as the author.

 

Personal communication

Bibliography Footnotes

No Reference necessary

In text In a conversation with me on March 1, 2017, Carla C. Ramirez confirmed that...

Footnote Roland J. Zuckerman, email message to author, June 1, 2017.

Cite conversations, letters, email or text messages, etc., only in notes. Key elements include the name of the other person, the type of communication, and the date of correspondence. In some cases, you may be able to include some or all of this information in text rather than as a footnote.

 

Course reader

Your course reader is made up of different types of sources. Do not reference the reader as a whole. Cite them according to the source

Primary source accessed from EGW, AHC or similar

Bibliography Footnote
Author's last name, first name. Description of Item/Document. Date. Name of Collection. Name of Institution and Location.  

 

Creel, George. Letter to Colonel House. September 25, 1918. Edward M. House Papers. Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.

 

First note George Creel to Colonel House, 25 September 1918, Edward M. House Papers, Yale University Library, New Haven, CT.

Subsequent note Creel, letter to House.