Skip to Main Content

Turabian 9th Edition: WEB



Bibliography Footnote

Not usually included in the Reference List. Identify the following elements in this order:

1. Author (if there is one. Search bottom of page, About Us, etc)

2. Title of page or information quoted (enclose in quotation marks)

3. Title of site (only use italics if this is a well known entity available in print form, e.g. New York Times)

4. Owner or sponsor of site (if not the same as the title of site)

5. Publication or revision date (Expressed as ‘last modified’. Only enter ‘accessed (date)’ if there is no date on the website.

6. URL

B. A. Robinson, “Buddhism, based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama,” Religious Tolerance, Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance, November 11, 2016,


Subsequent notes: Robinson, "Buddhism- teachings of Siddhartha".

Online letters

Bibliography Footnote
Oglethorpe, J. Phillipps Collection of Egmont Manuscripts, 14200:13. (Athens, GO: University of Georgia Library), docId=ead/ms1786-ead.xml

James Oglethorpe to the Trustees, January 13, 1733, in Phillipps Collection of Egmont Manuscripts, 14200:13, University of Georgia Library, Athens, docId=ead/ms1786-ead.xml

Subsequent Notes: Oglethorpe, Egmont Manuscripts.


Bibliography Footnote
E-mail messages may be cited in running text (“In an e-mail message to the author on October 31, 2005, John Doe revealed . . .”) instead of in a note. They are rarely listed in a bibliography or reference list. The following example shows the more formal version of a note: John Doe, e-mail message to author, October 31, 2011.

Powerpoint presentations

Bibliography Footnote

Prince, Felix. “Auditing Principles.” PowerPoint presentation, Avondale University College, Cooranbong, NSW, August 8, 2017.

Note: Add just the URL if this is an online powerpoint. No need to add ‘Downloaded from’

Felix Prince, “Auditing Principles” (PowerPoint presentation, Avondale University College, Cooranbong, NSW, August 8, 2017).

Subsequent notes: Prince, "Auditing Principles".


Blog post

Bibliography Footnote

Blog entries or comments may be cited in your text (“In a comment posted to the Becker-Posner Blog on March 6, 2006, Peter Pearson noted . . .”) and omitted from a bibliography or reference list.

For a formal entry: Becker-Posner Blog, The. Accessed March 28, 2006.

Peter Pearson, comment on “The New American Dilemma: Illegal Immigration,” The Becker-Posner Blog, comment posted March 6, 2006,

Subsequent Notes: Pearson, New American Dilemma.


Bibliography Footnote
No need to include in your Reference List.

Top Trending, “A Day in the Life of Bill Gates,” March 8, 2019, YouTube video, 12:49,

Subsequent Notes: Top Trending, Life of Bill Gates.



Image on a webpage with date and creator of image

Bibliography Footnote
Not usually included in the Reference List. Jim Goldstein, “Crater Lake Reflection,” Flickr image, 2001, 423818